Enabling the growth of
Transforming air and water into fuels, chemicals, materials and food.
All products currently based on fossil fuels can be made from green hydrogen (H2) and carbon dioxide (CO2). By emission-free electricity and power-to-X technologies (PtX), we can produce hydrogen from water, and capture CO2 either from sea water or air.
These raw materials as well as solar and wind energy, are globally abundant resources. This enables location independent production of transportation fuels, valuable chemicals, materials such as plastics – and even eatable proteins.
The key enablers of the cost efficient PtX production are energy efficiency, mass-produced modular technology and integration into with other energy systems, such as heating and ventilation in buildings.
/ Recycling carbon dioxide. Location independent production. Food without fields. Creating carbon sinks. Enabling net-zero emissions.
The transition to a net-zero emission society requires decarbonizing not only the energy sector, but also transportation, heat, industry and agriculture. Power-to-X, shortly PtX, technology provides a route to accomplish this.
The basic idea in PtX is to transform electrical energy into other energy forms and if necessary, back to electrical energy (XtP). PtX technology can be applied to produce directly hydrogen (H2) gas by splitting up water.
Hydrogen and carbon dioxide (CO2) captured from different sources can be further combined in synthesis to form hydrocarbons such as methanol (CH3OH). These gases can also be used as a feed to microbes in bioprocess to produce protein rich biomass. This route is called as Pt-Food.
/ Research objectives in P2XEnable
Energy and cost efficiency of water electrolysis: The effect of power quality on energy efficiency, controllability and degradation of proton exchange membrane (PEM) electrolysis is experimentally verified and modelled. A method and tool for a water electrolyzer process life-cycle cost optimization by component dimensioning and controlling is developed.
CO2 capture from air and sea water: Performance and energy efficiency of an intensified modular membrane- and ultrasound desorption-based CO2 capture technology is studied. Proof-of-concept for a CO2 sea water capture using on electrodialysis is build and verified in laboratory.
Modular methanol synthesis: Concept of modular milli-channel reactor for methanol synthesis from H2 and CO2 is developed and modelled. A proof-of-concept is built and verified in laboratory. The techno-economics and up-scaling of the concept are studied and compared with conventional methanol synthesis.
PtX in buildings: Technical feasibility model of CO2 capture from supply/exhaust air streams in buildings is developed including the integration with heating and heat storages.
Techno-economics of PtX at global level: The first global-local investigation of Pt-Food/Feed is conducted. Synthetic fuel trade impact is investigated. The first demand curve for electrolyzers in a 100 % renewable energy system at 2050 scenario is presented.
/ THE TEAM
/ TUOMAS KOIRANEN
SYNTHESIS PROCESS DEVELOPMENT
/ ANNUKKA SANTASALO-AARNIO